πŸ—οΈ DNA and protein synthesis (AQA)

The complete set of genes in a cell is known as the genome while the full range of proteins a cell can make is the proteome. These are the steps that bridge these two realms.

 

Proteins are made up of amino acids linked by peptide bonds, therefore a protein may be referred to as a polypeptide (of course, some proteins such as haemoglobin have extra bits to them). All are encoded for by the information stored in DNA. Let’s see how exactly this happens.

 

Transcription: DNA to mRNA

 

In a process called transcription, mRNA is formed based on DNA. The bases on the coding strand of DNA are transcribed into a new molecule, mRNA, which is synthesised by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

 

 

Wanna see more detail?

 

 

As you can see, the DNA double helix unwinds, RNA polymerase anneals to the coding strand and recruits freely available bases (A, U, C, G) to build an…