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๐Ÿž Carbohydrates (Edexcel)
๐Ÿฆ Lipids (Edexcel)
๐ŸŒฏ Proteins (Edexcel)
๐Ÿงฌ DNA and Protein Synthesis (Edexcel)
๐Ÿ‘„ Enzymes
๐Ÿง‚ Inorganic Ions (Edexcel)
๐ŸŒŠ Water (Edexcel)
๐Ÿฅฏ Carbohydrates (AQA)
๐Ÿฌ Monomers and Polymers
๐Ÿฅ Lipids (AQA)
๐Ÿ— Proteins (AQA)
๐Ÿฅ› Many proteins are enzymes
๐Ÿงฌ Structure of DNA and RNA
๐Ÿ’พ Replication of DNA
๐Ÿšด ATP (AQA)
๐Ÿคฝ Water (AQA)
๐Ÿง‚ Inorganic Ions (AQA)
๐Ÿงช Practical skills assessed in a written examination
๐Ÿฅผ Practical skills assessed in the practical endorsement
๐Ÿงฌ The structure of DNA
๐Ÿ“€ Replication of DNA
๐Ÿ”ง Control of gene expression
๐Ÿ’ช Cellular differentiation
๐Ÿ“œ The structure of the genome
๐Ÿฉ Mutations
๐Ÿฅ Evolution
๐Ÿ”Ž Genomic sequencing
๐Ÿงซ Laboratory techniques for biologists
๐Ÿฅ˜ Proteins (Scottish Advanced Higher)
๐Ÿ‘ฎ Membrane proteins
โšก Detecting and amplifying an environmental stimulus
๐Ÿšˆ Communication within multicellular organisms
โž— Protein control of cell division
๐Ÿ”‹ Cellular Respiration
๐Ÿงน Metabolism and exercise
๐Ÿ‘ถ Fertility and assisted reproduction
๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ‘ฆ The effects of ageing on the reproductive system
๐ŸŒฟ Photosynthesis, food production and management of the environment
๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ‘ง The impact of population increase
๐Ÿ’ Plant reproduction
๐Ÿฉ Aerobic Respiration
๐Ÿง Glycolysis
๐Ÿฐ Link reaction and Krebs cycle
๐Ÿฅค Oxidative Phosphorylation
๐Ÿป Anaerobic Respiration
๐ŸŒˆ Photosynthetic pigments
๐ŸŒฆ๏ธ Photosynthesis (Edexcel)
๐Ÿ’ช Respiration
๐Ÿ„ Energy and Ecosystems
๐ŸŒง๏ธ Nutrient cycles (AQA)
๐Ÿค’ Pathogens
๐Ÿƒโ€โ™€๏ธ Lifestyle
๐Ÿฅฃ The Digestive System
๐ŸŒก๏ธ Enzyme Action
๐Ÿ› Carbohydrate Digestion
๐Ÿงซ Cells
๐Ÿš Plasma Membranes
๐Ÿ’… Diffusion
๐ŸŒŠ Osmosis
๐Ÿ˜… Active Transport
๐Ÿ’• Absorption
๐Ÿฆ  Cholera
๐Ÿ˜ค Lung Function
๐Ÿšฌ The Biological Basis of Lung Disease
๐Ÿ’ Heart Structure and Function
๐Ÿ’” The Biological Basis of Heart Disease
๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ‘ฉโ€๐Ÿ‘ฆ Inheritance
โ˜€๏ธ Survival and Response
๐Ÿฅฉ The Sliding Filament Theory of Muscle Contraction
๐Ÿ’Š Genetic Variation in Bacteria
๐Ÿฆ Species Diversity
๐ŸŒพ Index of Diversity
๐ŸŒต Populations and Ecosystems
๐Ÿฆ‚ Investigating Populations
๐Ÿ  Variation in Population Size
๐ŸŒŽ Human Populations
๐Ÿฆต ATP
๐ŸŒž Photosynthesis (AQA)
๐ŸŒป Light-dependent Reaction
๐Ÿ› Investigating Variation
๐ŸŒ— Light-independent Reaction
๐ŸŒฑ Energy and Food Production
โ›ˆ๏ธ Nutrient Cycles
๐ŸŒณ Succession
๐ŸฆŸ Selection
๐Ÿ’ช Muscles as Effectors
๐Ÿฅต Temperature Control
โฐ Control of Mammalian Oestrus
๐Ÿงฌ The Genetic Code
โš–๏ธ Principles (Negative Feedback)
๐Ÿ’‰ Gene Therapy
๐Ÿž Gene Mutation
๐Ÿ—๏ธ Polypeptide Synthesis
๐Ÿงซ Cell Differentiation
๐Ÿ˜ค Gas Exchange
๐Ÿš‚ Mass Transport
๐Ÿ›ฃ๏ธ The Blood System
๐ŸŒด The Passage of Water Through a Plant
๐Ÿฏ Principles of Taxonomy
๐Ÿ’ Genetic Comparisons
๐Ÿ’Œ Courtship Behaviour
๐ŸŒค๏ธ Causes of Variation
๐Ÿงฌ Structure of DNA
๐Ÿ—๏ธ Genes and Polypeptides
๐Ÿงฌ DNA and Chromosomes
๐Ÿงซ Meiosis
๐Ÿ•ท๏ธ Genetic Diversity
โ˜˜๏ธ (Plant) Cells
๐Ÿ”ฌ Mitosis
๐Ÿงซ Cell Cycle
๐Ÿš“ Principles of Immunology
๐ŸŒก๏ธ Limiting Factors
๐ŸŒฟ Energy Transfer
๐Ÿงฌ Nitrogen
๐Ÿงœโ€โ™€๏ธ Speciation
๐Ÿ› Principles (Coordination)
๐Ÿ˜“ Principles (Homeostasis)
๐Ÿง  Human brain structure and function
๐Ÿšจ Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
๐ŸŽฎ Hypothalamus
๐Ÿ–– Sensory and motor areas in the cortex
๐Ÿ’ฌ Language and speech
๐Ÿฅผ Brain study techniques
๐Ÿ‘ถ Brain development and neuroplasticity
๐Ÿ’ญ Gene expression and the brain
๐ŸŒป Reflex, taxis and kinesis
๐Ÿ’ก Learned behaviour
๐Ÿ Transgenic animals and plants
โ›… Photosynthesis (Edexcel)
๐Ÿง‚ Inorganic Ions (WJEC)
๐ŸŒŠ Water (WJEC)
๐Ÿฏ Carbohydrate structure and function (WJEC)
๐Ÿž Starch, Cellulose and Chitin
๐Ÿฆ Lipids (WJEC)
๐Ÿ—๏ธ Protein Structure
๐Ÿ’ช Aerobic respiration and photosynthesis: ATP production
๐Ÿฅค Water (CCEA)
๐Ÿง‚ Inorganic Ions (CCEA)
๐Ÿ Carbohydrates (CCEA)
๐ŸŽ๏ธ Haemoglobin
๐Ÿฌ Monomers and Polymers
๐Ÿฅ Lipids (CCEA)
๐Ÿ– Proteins (CCEA)
๐Ÿงฌ DNA
๐Ÿงซ DNA Replication
๐Ÿคน Negative Feedback
๐Ÿฅค Kidney Function
๐Ÿ”ฌ Structure of eukaryotic cells
๐Ÿฆ  Structure of Prokaryotic Cells and of Viruses
๐Ÿ”ฌ Methods of studying cells
๐Ÿงซ All cells arise from other cells
๐ŸšŽ Transport across cell membranes
๐Ÿ‘ฎโ€โ™€๏ธ Cell recognition and the immune system
๐Ÿ”ฌ Cells and microscopy
๐ŸŒŠ Water and its importance in plants and animals
๐Ÿบ Proteins and Enzymes
๐Ÿงฌ Nucleic Acids
๐Ÿ’™ The heart and monitoring heart function
๐Ÿš‡ Transport systems in mammals
๐Ÿ˜ค Gas exchange in mammals and plants
๐ŸŒฒ Transport systems in plants
โš™๏ธ Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell structure and function
๐Ÿ›ธ Viruses
๐Ÿ‘ถ Sexual reproduction in mammals
๐ŸŒน Sexual reproduction in plants
๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Metabolic pathways and their control
๐Ÿ”ฅ Cell respiration
๐Ÿญ Metabolic rate
๐ŸฆŽ Metabolism in conformers and regulators
๐Ÿป Metabolism and adverse conditions
๐Ÿงซ Environmental control of metabolism
๐Ÿงฌ Genetic control of metabolism
โš ๏ธ Ethical considerations in the use of microorganisms โ€” hazards and control of risks
๐Ÿ’ฎ Patterns of inheritance
๐Ÿฆœ Population genetics and epigenetics
๐Ÿงช Gene technologies (OCR)
๐Ÿง  The nervous system and the identification and consequences of damage
๐Ÿ‘๏ธ Monitoring visual function
๐Ÿข The effect of ageing on the nervous system
โš–๏ธ The principles and importance of homeostasis (AQA)
๐Ÿ‘ฉโ€โš•๏ธ The hormonal control of blood glucose and the management of diabetes
๐Ÿ‘จโ€โš•๏ธ Kidney functions and malfunctions
๐Ÿฆ‹ Field techniques for biologists
๐Ÿž Organisms
๐Ÿถ Variation and sexual reproduction
๐Ÿฆ€ Sex and behaviour (Scottish Advanced Higher)
๐ŸฆŸ Parasitism
๐Ÿงซ Microbial Techniques
๐Ÿฆ  Bacteria as pathogens
๐Ÿ’Š Antibiotics (Edexcel)
๐Ÿ›ก๏ธ Antibiotic Resistance
๐Ÿ„ Other pathogenic agents
๐ŸŒ Problems of controlling endemic diseases
๐Ÿšจ Response to infection
โ˜€๏ธ Survival and response (AQA)
โ˜๏ธ Receptors
๐Ÿ˜ฐ Control of Heart Rate
๐Ÿน Nerve Impulses
๐Ÿ Synaptic Transmission
๐Ÿ’ช Skeletal muscles are stimulated to contract by nerves and act as effectors
โš–๏ธ Principles of homeostasis and negative feedback
๐Ÿฉ Control of Blood Glucose Concentration
๐Ÿฅค Control of blood water potential
โš”๏ธ Principles of immunity (CCEA)
๐Ÿฅ Transplantation and immunosuppression
โš™๏ธ Eukaryotic Cells
๐Ÿฆ  Prokaryotic Cells and Viruses
๐Ÿ”ฌ Cell differences and microscopy
๐Ÿฅผ Organisation under the microscope: cells, tissues, organs
๐Ÿงช Enzyme Structure
๐Ÿฅ› Enzyme Function
๐Ÿ Immobilised enzymes in biotech
๐ŸŒž Photosynthesis
โ›… Light-Dependent Reaction (WJEC)
๐ŸŒ™ Light-Independent Reaction (WJEC)
๐ŸŒก๏ธ Limiting factors in photosynthesis
๐ŸŒฑ Fertilisers
๐Ÿงซ The developing cell: cell division and cell differentiation
๐Ÿค The developing individual: meiosis, growth and development
๐Ÿ† The development of species: evolution and classification
๐Ÿฆ  Pathogenic microorganisms
๐Ÿ›ก๏ธ The immune system (OCR)
โš”๏ธ Controlling communicable diseases
๐Ÿงซ The cellular basis of cancer and treatment
๐Ÿฅ Respiratory diseases and treatment
๐Ÿต Classification
๐Ÿœ Natural selection
๐Ÿ Biodiversity (Edexcel)
๐ŸšŒ Social groups
๐Ÿœ Insect social structure
๐Ÿฆ Dominance hierarchies in vertebrates
๐Ÿ’Œ Courtship behaviour and sexual selection
๐Ÿ’ป The genetic code (CCEA)
๐Ÿ—๏ธ Polypeptide synthesis (CCEA)
๐Ÿ”ง Epigenetics (CCEA)
๐Ÿงฌ Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
๐Ÿฅผ DNA probes, microarrays and genetic fingerprinting
๐Ÿงช Gene cloning
ย ๐Ÿ˜ Size and Surface Area
๐Ÿ˜ค Gas exchange (AQA)
๐Ÿช Digestion and absorption
๐Ÿ’– Mass transport in animals
๐ŸŒด Mass transport in plants
๐ŸŒพ Food supply, plant growth and productivity
๐Ÿ„ Plant and animal breeding
๐ŸŒฟ Crop protection
๐Ÿ– Animal welfare
๐Ÿ› Symbiosis
๐Ÿ Social behaviour
๐Ÿจ Mass extinction and biodiversity
โ˜ ๏ธ Threats to biodiversity
๐Ÿ“– Scientific principles and process
๐Ÿงช Experimentation
๐Ÿ’ญ Critical evaluation of biological research
๐Ÿ‘ฉโ€๐Ÿ‘ง Inheritance (AQA)
๐Ÿ The Hardy-Weinberg Principle (AQA)
๐Ÿ… Evolution may lead to speciation
๐Ÿบ Populations in ecosystems (AQA)
๐Ÿงฌ Using gene sequencing
๐ŸŽฎ Factors affecting gene expression
๐Ÿงซ Stem Cells
๐Ÿฅผ Gene Technology (Edexcel)
๐ŸŒต Plant hormones
๐Ÿง  Neurones
๐Ÿ“ˆ Action potential
๐Ÿ”— Synapse (CCEA)
๐Ÿ‘€ Mammalian vision
๐ŸฅŠ Muscle contraction
๐Ÿš Plasma membranes (WJEC)
๐ŸŽˆ Passive Transport
โœˆ๏ธ Active Transport (WJEC)
๐Ÿ—๏ธ Glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
โš™๏ธ Lipids and amino acids in respiration
๐Ÿ”ฌ Structure of bacteriophage and of HIV
๐Ÿ Surface area to volume ratio (Edexcel)
๐Ÿš‡ Cell transport mechanisms
โ˜๏ธ Gas exchange (Edexcel)
๐ŸŽ๏ธ Circulation
๐Ÿš† Transport of gases in the blood
๐Ÿšด๐Ÿฟ Transport of materials between the circulatory system and cells
๐ŸŒณ Transport in plants (Edexcel)
๐Ÿงฌ DNA, genes and chromosomes
๐Ÿ—๏ธ DNA and protein synthesis (AQA)
๐Ÿต Genetic diversity can arise as a result of mutation or during meiosis
๐Ÿธ Genetic diversity and adaptation
๐Ÿฆ Species and taxonomy
๐Ÿฆ— Biodiversity within a community
๐Ÿงช Investigating diversity
๐ŸŽฒ Origins of genetic variation
๐ŸŒฟ Transfer or genetic information
๐Ÿป Gene Pools (Edexcel)
๐ŸŒ  Alteration of the sequence of bases in DNA can alter the structure of proteins
โš™๏ธ Most of a Cellโ€™s DNA is not Translated
๐Ÿ‘ฎ Regulation of Transcription and Translation
๐Ÿงซ Gene expression and cancer
๐Ÿ“‹ Using genome projects
๐ŸŽจ Recombinant DNA Technology
๐Ÿ” Differences in DNA between individuals of the same species can be exploited for identification and diagnosis of heritable conditions
๐Ÿงช Genetic Fingerprinting (AQA)
๐Ÿผ Enzyme structure and action
๐ŸŒก๏ธ Factors affecting enzyme function
๐Ÿฅค Immobilised enzymes in industry
โš™๏ธ Cell Structure
๐Ÿš Plasma Membranes (CCEA)
๐Ÿ‘€ Microscopy
๐Ÿฆ  Bacterial classification
๐Ÿงซ Culturing microorganisms
๐Ÿ”ฌ Optimising and analysing growth
๐Ÿคน Homeostasis
๐Ÿฅฐ Chemical Control in Mammals
๐ŸŒฑ Chemical Control in Plants
๐Ÿง  Structure and function of the mammalian nervous system
๐Ÿ’ช Nervous transmission
๐Ÿ’Š Effects of drugs on the nervous system
๐Ÿ‘๏ธ Detection of light by mammals
๐Ÿ’‘ Control of heart rate in mammals
๐Ÿ’ง Osmoregulation and temperature regulation
๐Ÿœ The nature of ecosystems
๐ŸŒพ Energy transfer through ecosystems
๐Ÿ”ฅ Changes in ecosystems
๐ŸŒ Human effects on ecosystems
๐Ÿง‚ Diffusion, facilitated diffusion and osmosis
๐Ÿ˜… Active Transport (CCEA)
โš™๏ธ ATP (WJEC)
๐Ÿงฌ DNA Structure (WJEC)
๐Ÿ’พ DNA Replication (WJEC)
๐Ÿ—๏ธ The genetic code (WJEC)
๐Ÿ—„๏ธ Polypeptide synthesis and processing
๐ŸŒ Population growth (WJEC)
โ˜˜๏ธ Sampling Organisms
๐ŸŒจ๏ธ Ecosystems
๐ŸŒ Biomass transfer
๐ŸŒณ Succession (WJEC)
๐Ÿฆ  Nutrient Cycles (WJEC)
๐Ÿญ Carbon Cycles (WJEC)
๐ŸŒฉ๏ธ Nitrogen Cycles (WJEC)
๐Ÿ‘ถ Cell Cycle (CCEA)
๐Ÿงฌ Chromosomes
๐Ÿ”ฌ Mitosis (CCEA)
๐Ÿญ Meiosis (CCEA)
๐Ÿ”ฌ Cell Cycle (WJEC)
๐ŸŒฑ Mitosis (WJEC)
๐ŸŒˆ Meiosis (WJEC)
โšฐ๏ธ Species Extinction
๐Ÿ‘ฉโ€โš•๏ธ Gene therapy (CCEA)
๐Ÿ–ฅ๏ธ Genome sequencing
โš–๏ธ Ethics and safety of gene technology
๐Ÿ‘ถ๐Ÿพ Inheritance (CCEA)
๐ŸŽฒ Sex determination and sex linkage
๐Ÿ”ฎ Genetic interactions and properties
๐ŸŽฑ Gene pools (CCEA)
๐Ÿฐ Hardy-Weinberg principle (CCEA)
๐Ÿญ Causes of variation (CCEA)
๐Ÿ•ท๏ธ Selection (CCEA)
๐Ÿฆ™ Chordata (e.g. cat) body form
๐Ÿ’ฝ Gene pool conservation
๐Ÿฅช Agriculture
๐Ÿ—ณ๏ธ Politics and the environment
๐ŸŒ Planetary boundaries
๐Ÿณ Homeostasis and negative feedback (WJEC)
๐Ÿฅค Mammalian kidney structure and function
๐Ÿ‘จโ€โš•๏ธ Kidney failure
๐Ÿซ Cell Specialisation
โš™๏ธ Ileum structure and function
๐Ÿงฝ Absorption by the epithelium
๐Ÿƒ Structure and function of a mesophytic leaf
๐Ÿ““ Classification of organisms
๐Ÿ‘‘ Kingdoms: Prokaryotae, Protoctista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
๐Ÿพ Genetic fingerprinting (WJEC)
๐Ÿจ Biodiversity (WJEC)
๐Ÿฆ‹ Measuring biodiversity and natural selection
๐Ÿ•๏ธ Adaptation
๐Ÿƒโ€โ™‚๏ธ Response to stimuli and the spinal cord
๐Ÿ›ด Nerve impulses and the motor neurone
๐Ÿ”— Synapse (WJEC)
๐Ÿฆ Gas Exchange Adaptations
๐Ÿ Insect and fish gas exchange
๐Ÿ˜ค Human gas exchange
๐Ÿ Structure of the angiosperm leaf
๐Ÿซ Surface area to volume ratio (CCEA)
โœˆ๏ธ Mass transport (CCEA)
โ˜๏ธ Gas Exchange (CCEA)
๐ŸŒฒ Transport in plants (CCEA)
๐Ÿ’“ Mammalian circulation (CCEA)
๐Ÿ’› Mammalian heart
๐Ÿ’ฆ Blood and tissue fluid
๐Ÿค• Blood clotting
๐ŸšŽ Haemoglobin (CCEA)
๐ŸŽฑ Ovary, testis, oogenesis and spermatogenesis
๐Ÿ‘ถ Menstruation, gestation and lactation
๐ŸŸ Earthworm, insect, fish and mammal vascular systems
๐Ÿ’œ Mammalian circulation (WJEC)
๐Ÿš‚ Haemoglobin (WJEC)
๐ŸŒŠ Tissue fluid
๐ŸŒพ Plant transport
๐ŸŒต Adaptation to the environment
๐Ÿž Population distribution
๐Ÿฆ Diversity Amongst Organisms
๐Ÿ“ Measuring Diversity
๐Ÿ‰ Taxonomy
๐Ÿ‘‘ The Five Kingdoms
๐Ÿ˜ณ Human environmental impact
๐Ÿ† Supporting biodiversity
๐ŸŒผ Flowers, pollen and ovules
๐Ÿ“ Pollination and double-fertilisation
๐Ÿฅ Seed, fruit, germination and the hormone gibberellin
๐Ÿฎ Types of nutrition
๐Ÿ”ฌ Unicellular nutrition in Amoeba and multicellular nutrition in Hydra
๐Ÿคค Human gut adaptations and digestion
๐Ÿ‘„ Herbivore and carnivore adaptations
๐Ÿง› Parasites (WJEC)
๐Ÿธ Alleles and Mendelian inheritance
๐Ÿ“‰ Chi squared test
โœ–๏ธ Sex linkage in haemophilia and Duchenne muscular dystrophy
๐Ÿงฌ Gene mutation in sickle cell anaemia and chromosome mutation in Downโ€™s syndrome
โ˜€๏ธ Mutagens, carcinogens and oncogenes
๐Ÿ•น๏ธ Epigenetics
๐Ÿงฌ Causes of variation between individuals
๐Ÿงฐ Gene pool (WJEC)
๐Ÿž The Hardy-Weinberg principle (WJEC)
๐Ÿœ Speciation and natural selection
๐Ÿงช Population growth (CCEA)
๐ŸŒณ Communities and ecosystems
๐Ÿฆ Succession (CCEA)
๐Ÿ„ Energy transfer (CCEA)
๐Ÿญ Carbon cycle (CCEA)
โ›ˆ๏ธ Nitrogen cycle (CCEA)
๐Ÿ“ข Human Genome Project and its implications
๐Ÿงช PCR, gel electrophoresis and GMOs
๐Ÿฅ Genomics, gene therapy and stem cells
๐Ÿค’ Pathogens (WJEC)
๐Ÿฆ  Cholera (WJEC)
๐Ÿ’ง Tuberculosis
๐Ÿ€ Smallpox
๐ŸŒก๏ธ Influenza
๐ŸฆŸ Malaria
๐Ÿ‘พ Virus pathogenicity and mode of reproduction
โ˜ ๏ธ Antibiotics (WJEC)
๐Ÿ›ก๏ธ Immune System (WJEC)
๐Ÿ’‰ Vaccination
โš™๏ธ ATP (CCEA)
๐Ÿบ Aerobic and anaerobic respiration
๐Ÿƒโ€โ™‚๏ธ Structure of cartilage
๐Ÿฆด Bone components and their function
๐Ÿ‘จโ€โš•๏ธ Bone disease
๐Ÿฅฉ Skeletal muscle
๐Ÿ”ฌ Sliding filament theory
๐Ÿ‘ท Muscle contraction fuels and conditions
๐Ÿ’€ The skeleton and fractures
๐Ÿ‘ฉโ€โš•๏ธ Vertebrae and deformities
โš™๏ธ Skeleton function
๐Ÿฆต Joint types
๐Ÿ‘จโ€โš•๏ธ Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis
๐Ÿ’ช Joints as levers
๐Ÿ”— Synovial joint structure
๐Ÿ‹๏ธ Forelimb muscle action and the role of tendons
๐ŸŒค๏ธ Overview
๐ŸŒ… Light-dependent reaction (CCEA)
๐ŸŒ‡ Light-independent reaction (CCEA)
๐Ÿ“ Limiting factors (CCEA)
๐Ÿœ Carbohydrates
๐Ÿด Speciation (CCEA)
๐ŸŒฟ Bryophyta (e.g. moss) form and adaptations
๐Ÿƒ Tracheophyta (e.g. fern) form
๐ŸŒน Angiosperm (e.g. flowering plant) form and adaptations
โญ Cnidaria (e.g. Hydra) body form
๐ŸŒˆ Platyhelminthes (e.g. flatworm) body form
๐Ÿ› Annelida (e.g. earthworm) body form
๐Ÿ Arthropoda (e.g. insect) body form