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πŸ₯― Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates as well as proteins are polymers and contain only a few different types of atom. In the case of carbohydrates, the basic molecular units are called monosaccharides – these are the monomers. (mono = single; poly = multiple; saccharide = sugar)

Ξ± (alpha) glucose is the most important monosaccharide to learn, as you need to be able to draw it:

The points where the lines intersect each symbolise a carbon (C) atom. You need not show those. The figure above is taken from the specification itself, so take it as a good guide. So the monosaccharide alpha glucose (commonly, just glucose) somehow becomes a polysaccharide, This is achieved by condensation reactions, and the bonds formed are called glycosidic bonds.

You should be able to draw this. The resulting molecule,Β maltose, is aΒ disaccharideΒ (two monomers). If you keep adding glucose molecules to the chain, you get… *drum roll please* …starch. Starch is made up of multiple (very many indeed) monomers, so it is a polymer i.e. it is made of multiple monosaccharides, so it is a polysaccharide.

Potatoes anyone?

You also need to know about two other disaccharides and their constituent monosaccharides – sucroseΒ and…

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You explain everything so simply!Β πŸ™‚Β -SecretDuck on The Student Room