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Carbohydrates (Edexcel)
Lipids (Edexcel)
Proteins (Edexcel)
DNA and Protein Synthesis (Edexcel)
Inorganic Ions (Edexcel)
Water (Edexcel)
Carbohydrates (AQA)
Monomers and Polymers
Lipids (AQA)
Proteins (AQA)
Many proteins are enzymes
Structure of DNA and RNA
Replication of DNA
Water (AQA)
Inorganic Ions (AQA)
Practical skills assessed in a written examination
Practical skills assessed in the practical endorsement
The structure of DNA
Replication of DNA
Control of gene expression
Cellular differentiation
The structure of the genome
Genomic sequencing
Laboratory techniques for biologists
Proteins (Scottish Advanced Higher)
Membrane proteins
⚡ Detecting and amplifying an environmental stimulus
Communication within multicellular organisms
➗ Protein control of cell division
Cellular Respiration
Metabolism and exercise
Fertility and assisted reproduction
The effects of ageing on the reproductive system
Photosynthesis, food production and management of the environment
The impact of population increase
Plant reproduction
Aerobic Respiration
Link reaction and Krebs cycle
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Anaerobic Respiration
Photosynthetic pigments
Photosynthesis (Edexcel)
Energy and Ecosystems
Nutrient cycles (AQA)
The Digestive System
Enzyme Action
Carbohydrate Digestion
Plasma Membranes
Active Transport
Lung Function
The Biological Basis of Lung Disease
Heart Structure and Function
The Biological Basis of Heart Disease
☀️ Survival and Response
The Sliding Filament Theory of Muscle Contraction
Genetic Variation in Bacteria
Species Diversity
Index of Diversity
Populations and Ecosystems
Investigating Populations
Variation in Population Size
Human Populations
Photosynthesis (AQA)
Light-dependent Reaction
Investigating Variation
Light-independent Reaction
Energy and Food Production
⛈️ Nutrient Cycles
Muscles as Effectors
Temperature Control
⏰ Control of Mammalian Oestrus
The Genetic Code
⚖️ Principles (Negative Feedback)
Gene Therapy
Gene Mutation
Polypeptide Synthesis
Cell Differentiation
Gas Exchange
Mass Transport
The Blood System
The Passage of Water Through a Plant
Principles of Taxonomy
Genetic Comparisons
Courtship Behaviour
Causes of Variation
Structure of DNA
Genes and Polypeptides
DNA and Chromosomes
Genetic Diversity
☘️ (Plant) Cells
Cell Cycle
Principles of Immunology
Limiting Factors
Energy Transfer
Principles (Coordination)
Principles (Homeostasis)
Human brain structure and function
Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
Sensory and motor areas in the cortex
Language and speech
Brain study techniques
Brain development and neuroplasticity
Gene expression and the brain
Reflex, taxis and kinesis
Learned behaviour
Transgenic animals and plants
⛅ Photosynthesis (Edexcel)
⚖️ The compensation point
Animal behaviour
Antibody techniques
Effects of tobacco smoking
Cytometry and bacterial growth
RNA interference (RNAi)
Gram positive and gram negative bacteria
Inorganic Ions (WJEC)
Water (WJEC)
Carbohydrate structure and function (WJEC)
Starch, Cellulose and Chitin
Lipids (WJEC)
Protein Structure
Aerobic respiration and photosynthesis: ATP production
Water (CCEA)
Inorganic Ions (CCEA)
Carbohydrates (CCEA)
Monomers and Polymers
Lipids (CCEA)
Proteins (CCEA)
DNA Replication
Negative Feedback
Kidney Function
Structure of eukaryotic cells
Structure of Prokaryotic Cells and of Viruses
Methods of studying cells
All cells arise from other cells
Transport across cell membranes
Cell recognition and the immune system
Cells and microscopy
Water and its importance in plants and animals
Proteins and Enzymes
Nucleic Acids
The heart and monitoring heart function
Transport systems in mammals
Gas exchange in mammals and plants
Transport systems in plants
⚙️ Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell structure and function
Sexual reproduction in mammals
Sexual reproduction in plants
Metabolic pathways and their control
Cell respiration
Metabolic rate
Metabolism in conformers and regulators
Metabolism and adverse conditions
Environmental control of metabolism
Genetic control of metabolism
⚠️ Ethical considerations in the use of microorganisms — hazards and control of risks
Patterns of inheritance
Population genetics and epigenetics
Gene technologies (OCR)
The nervous system and the identification and consequences of damage
Monitoring visual function
The effect of ageing on the nervous system
⚖️ The principles and importance of homeostasis (AQA)
The hormonal control of blood glucose and the management of diabetes
Kidney functions and malfunctions
Field techniques for biologists
Variation and sexual reproduction
Sex and behaviour (Scottish Advanced Higher)
Microbial Techniques
Bacteria as pathogens
Antibiotics (Edexcel)
Antibiotic Resistance
Other pathogenic agents
Problems of controlling endemic diseases
Response to infection
☀️ Survival and response (AQA)
☝️ Receptors
Control of Heart Rate
Nerve Impulses
Synaptic Transmission
Skeletal muscles are stimulated to contract by nerves and act as effectors
⚖️ Principles of homeostasis and negative feedback
Control of Blood Glucose Concentration
Control of blood water potential
⚔️ Principles of immunity (CCEA)
Transplantation and immunosuppression
⚙️ Eukaryotic Cells
Prokaryotic Cells and Viruses
Cell differences and microscopy
Organisation under the microscope: cells, tissues, organs
Enzyme Structure
Enzyme Function
Immobilised enzymes in biotech
⛅ Light-Dependent Reaction (WJEC)
Light-Independent Reaction (WJEC)
Limiting factors in photosynthesis
The developing cell: cell division and cell differentiation
The developing individual: meiosis, growth and development
The development of species: evolution and classification
Pathogenic microorganisms
The immune system (OCR)
⚔️ Controlling communicable diseases
The cellular basis of cancer and treatment
Respiratory diseases and treatment
Natural selection
Biodiversity (Edexcel)
Social groups
Insect social structure
Dominance hierarchies in vertebrates
Courtship behaviour and sexual selection
The genetic code (CCEA)
Polypeptide synthesis (CCEA)
Epigenetics (CCEA)
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
DNA probes, microarrays and genetic fingerprinting
Gene cloning
Environmental protection
Functions of the liver
Neural development
Down’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome and Klinefelter’s syndrome
Family trees (pedigree)
Gas exchange in fish
Outline of the plant and animal kingdoms
Proteins as infectious agents
Size and Surface Area
Gas exchange (AQA)
Digestion and absorption
Mass transport in animals
Mass transport in plants
Food supply, plant growth and productivity
Plant and animal breeding
Crop protection
Animal welfare
Social behaviour
Mass extinction and biodiversity
☠️ Threats to biodiversity
Scientific principles and process
Critical evaluation of biological research
Inheritance (AQA)
The Hardy-Weinberg Principle (AQA)
Evolution may lead to speciation
Populations in ecosystems (AQA)
Using gene sequencing
Factors affecting gene expression
Stem Cells
Gene Technology (Edexcel)
Plant hormones
Action potential
Synapse (CCEA)
Mammalian vision
Muscle contraction
Plasma membranes (WJEC)
Passive Transport
✈️ Active Transport (WJEC)
Glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
⚙️ Lipids and amino acids in respiration
Structure of bacteriophage and of HIV
Surface area to volume ratio (Edexcel)
Cell transport mechanisms
☁️ Gas exchange (Edexcel)
Transport of gases in the blood
Transport of materials between the circulatory system and cells
Transport in plants (Edexcel)
DNA, genes and chromosomes
DNA and protein synthesis (AQA)
Genetic diversity can arise as a result of mutation or during meiosis
Genetic diversity and adaptation
Species and taxonomy
Biodiversity within a community
Investigating diversity
Origins of genetic variation
Transfer or genetic information
Gene Pools (Edexcel)
Alteration of the sequence of bases in DNA can alter the structure of proteins
⚙️ Most of a Cell’s DNA is not Translated
Regulation of Transcription and Translation
Gene expression and cancer
Using genome projects
Recombinant DNA Technology
Differences in DNA between individuals of the same species can be exploited for identification and diagnosis of heritable conditions
Genetic Fingerprinting (AQA)
Enzyme structure and action
Factors affecting enzyme function
Immobilised enzymes in industry
⚙️ Cell Structure
Plasma Membranes (CCEA)
Bacterial classification
Culturing microorganisms
Optimising and analysing growth
Chemical Control in Mammals
Chemical Control in Plants
Structure and function of the mammalian nervous system
Nervous transmission
Effects of drugs on the nervous system
Detection of light by mammals
Control of heart rate in mammals
Osmoregulation and temperature regulation
The nature of ecosystems
Energy transfer through ecosystems
Changes in ecosystems
Human effects on ecosystems
Diffusion, facilitated diffusion and osmosis
Active Transport (CCEA)
DNA Structure (WJEC)
DNA Replication (WJEC)
The genetic code (WJEC)
Polypeptide synthesis and processing
Population growth (WJEC)
☘️ Sampling Organisms
Biomass transfer
Succession (WJEC)
Nutrient Cycles (WJEC)
Carbon Cycles (WJEC)
Nitrogen Cycles (WJEC)
Cell Cycle (CCEA)
Mitosis (CCEA)
Meiosis (CCEA)
Cell Cycle (WJEC)
Mitosis (WJEC)
Meiosis (WJEC)
⚰️ Species Extinction
Gene therapy (CCEA)
Genome sequencing
⚖️ Ethics and safety of gene technology
Inheritance (CCEA)
Sex determination and sex linkage
Genetic interactions and properties
Gene pools (CCEA)
Hardy-Weinberg principle (CCEA)
Causes of variation (CCEA)
Selection (CCEA)
Chordata (e.g. cat) body form
Integrated pest management
Interpreting heart function data
Origin of life
⛔ End-product inhibition
Training and supplements
Instruments and equipment
Nervous and hormonal control of digestion
⚕️ Penicillin and tetracycline
Fighting viruses
Gene pool conservation
Politics and the environment
Planetary boundaries
Homeostasis and negative feedback (WJEC)
Mammalian kidney structure and function
 Kidney failure
Cell Specialisation
⚙️ Ileum structure and function
Absorption by the epithelium
Structure and function of a mesophytic leaf
Classification of organisms
Kingdoms: Prokaryotae, Protoctista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
Genetic fingerprinting (WJEC)
Biodiversity (WJEC)
Measuring biodiversity and natural selection
Response to stimuli and the spinal cord
Nerve impulses and the motor neurone
Synapse (WJEC)
Gas Exchange Adaptations
Insect and fish gas exchange
Human gas exchange
Structure of the angiosperm leaf
Surface area to volume ratio (CCEA)
✈️ Mass transport (CCEA)
☁️ Gas Exchange (CCEA)
Transport in plants (CCEA)
Mammalian circulation (CCEA)
Mammalian heart
Blood and tissue fluid
Blood clotting
Haemoglobin (CCEA)
Ovary, testis, oogenesis and spermatogenesis
Menstruation, gestation and lactation
Earthworm, insect, fish and mammal vascular systems
Mammalian circulation (WJEC)
Haemoglobin (WJEC)
Tissue fluid
Plant transport
Adaptation to the environment
Population distribution
Diversity Amongst Organisms
Measuring Diversity
The Five Kingdoms
Human environmental impact
Supporting biodiversity
Flowers, pollen and ovules
Pollination and double-fertilisation
Seed, fruit, germination and the hormone gibberellin
Types of nutrition
Unicellular nutrition in Amoeba and multicellular nutrition in Hydra
Human gut adaptations and digestion
Herbivore and carnivore adaptations
Parasites (WJEC)
Alleles and Mendelian inheritance
Chi squared test
✖️ Sex linkage in haemophilia and Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Gene mutation in sickle cell anaemia and chromosome mutation in Down’s syndrome
☀️ Mutagens, carcinogens and oncogenes
Causes of variation between individuals
Gene pool (WJEC)
The Hardy-Weinberg principle (WJEC)
Speciation and natural selection
Population growth (CCEA)
Communities and ecosystems
Succession (CCEA)
Energy transfer (CCEA)
Carbon cycle (CCEA)
⛈️ Nitrogen cycle (CCEA)
Human Genome Project and its implications
PCR, gel electrophoresis and GMOs
Genomics, gene therapy and stem cells
Pathogens (WJEC)
Cholera (WJEC)
Virus pathogenicity and mode of reproduction
☠️ Antibiotics (WJEC)
Immune System (WJEC)
Aerobic and anaerobic respiration
Structure of cartilage
Bone components and their function
Bone disease
Skeletal muscle
Sliding filament theory
Muscle contraction fuels and conditions
The skeleton and fractures
Vertebrae and deformities
⚙️ Skeleton function
Joint types
Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis
Joints as levers
Synovial joint structure
Forelimb muscle action and the role of tendons
Light-dependent reaction (CCEA)
Light-independent reaction (CCEA)
Limiting factors (CCEA)
Speciation (CCEA)
Bryophyta (e.g. moss) form and adaptations
Tracheophyta (e.g. fern) form
Angiosperm (e.g. flowering plant) form and adaptations
⭐ Cnidaria (e.g. Hydra) body form
Platyhelminthes (e.g. flatworm) body form
Annelida (e.g. earthworm) body form
Arthropoda (e.g. insect) body form
Patterns of evolution
Pollination and fertilisation
Research and referencing
Visualising DNA with gel electrophoresis
Movement and locomotion
Culturing media
Affinity chromatography
Classical and operant conditioning
tRNA (Transfer RNA)
Age-related vision loss
Environmental effects on genes