๐Ÿ’ฎ Patterns of inheritance

Back in the day, Mendel crossed different varieties of pea plants to establish rules of inheritance. He didnโ€™t know what we know today about genes and DNA. So what do we know, and what did he find out?

 

The entirety of genetic material in an organism is called a genotype. It can also refer to specific things, like a genotype for a certain trait in a given organism.

 

The genotype refers to the physical constitution of a little part of DNA. Its expression, however (that is what protein a gene encodes, and what that protein ends up doing in the organism) is a separate entity which is subject to environmental influence. This is called the phenotype.

 

Humans have 2 sets of chromosomes, so for each distinct chromosome e.g. chromosome 1, there are two copies. How do the same genes on both homologous chromosomes interact if they result in different…