๐Ÿ‘ฎโ€โ™€๏ธ Cell recognition and the immune system

 

Different cells have different molecules presented on their surface to the immune system. These are often protein-based and enable the identification of:

-pathogens
-cells from other organisms of the same species
-abnormal body cells
-toxins

 

The specific immune response is split into humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity. Humoral is to do with the blood and antibodies. Distinguishing between an antigen and an antibody is very important.

Antigen = protein or carbohydrate foreign (not normally present) to a hostโ€™s organism

Antibody = protein made as a response to detecting an antigen which binds to the antigen and prevents the pathogen from harming the host.

 

Immunity against invading pathogens is a crucial part of maintaining health. The body has adaptations which prevent invasion by pathogens, as well as processes in place to deal with those that manage to penetrate the bodyโ€™s primary defenses. The skin and mucous membranes (e.g. mouth) are examples of such defenses. Sweat contains lysozyme which is an enzyme that breaks down…

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