🚓 Principles of Immunology

Immunity against invading pathogens is a crucial part of maintaining health. The body has adaptations which prevent invasion by pathogens, as well as processes in place to deal with those that manage to penetrate the body’s primary defenses. The skin and mucous membranes (e.g. mouth) are examples of such defenses. Sweat contains lysozyme which is an enzyme that breaks down bacterial walls.

 

If pathogens do invade the body, the subsequent immune response is split between:

 

1. Non-specific
2. Specific


The non-specific immune response is inflammation and phagocytosis.

 

Phagocytosis

White cells (the most common ones are neutrophils) engulf any foreign particles such as dust or bacteria, then digest them and…