Following fertilisation, the new seed is carried in fruit and can finally give rise to a new plant through germination at a location potentially further away than the parent plant. Fruit serves this spreading purpose by containing nutrients appealing to various animals which consume them and expel their seeds through defecation at a more distant place.
Seeds and fruit can develop into a multitude of shapes, sizes and arrangements in different flowering plants.
Broad beans have been cultivated for food for thousands of years, and are a great source of protein and folate.
In this case, the whole pod is the “fruit” while the bean is the seed. The testa is the outer coat that protects the embryo against dehydration and infection by outside agents.
The hilum is the scar left on the seed following its detachment from the wall of the ovary.
The micropyle was initially the opening through which the pollen entered the ovule for pollination, and now can serve to direct the emerging seedling out into the ground during germination. This can happen after a period of dormancy during which the seedling does not develop. This can help the plant save energy, and only develop in good conditions. Hydration of the seed can kickstart germination…