🧬 Structure of DNA and RNA

DNA and RNA are key carriers of biological information. For example, DNA may store a gene coding for haemoglobin or insulin, which is then processed by RNA and ribosomes (which are sophisticated machines themselves made of RNA and proteins) to manufacture those proteins. Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids (that’s the β€œNA” part of their acronym). They also contain a sugar group of a 5-carbon ring called a pentose. In DNA this is deoxyribose, while in RNA it’s ribose. This completes their respective names: deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid. The monomers of these nucleic acid compounds are nucleotides. Aside from the nitrogen-containing base and the pentose, they contain a phosphate group.



As you can see, the nitrogenous base in the DNA nucleotide is one of four options: adenine, guanine, cytosine or thymine . RNA has thymine switched for uracil, making its base options adenine, guanine, cytosine or uracil. To form the DNA or RNA polymer, these nucleotide monomers join together via a condensation reaction which produces a phosphodiester bond .



Starting to look a bit familiar? This is just a small section of what would be a much longer DNA polynucleotide chain. Put two of them together in a double helical fashion, kept together by hydrogen bonds between the two strands, and voilΓ  ! we have ourselves a DNA molecule.



As you can see, the base pairings are A-T and G-C. They follow this pairing rule and thus are known as…